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 Table of Contents 
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 63-65  

137C s concentration in soil and transfer factors for different matrices around narora atomic power station

1 Environmental Survey Laboratory, Health Physics Division, BARC, NAPS, Narora, Bulandshahr, India
2 ESS, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India

Date of Web Publication17-Mar-2012

Correspondence Address:
A Kumar
Environmental Survey Laboratory, Health Physics Division, BARC, NAPS, Narora, Bulandshahr
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This paper presents the results of 137 Cs content in soil samples around Narora Atomic Power Station using gamma spectrometric system. The transfer factors (TF) of different terrestrial matrices are also evaluated. It is observed that the range of 137 Cs content in Narora soil is 0.35 Bq/kg to 6.8 Bq/kg with an average value of 4.2 Bq/kg dry weight which is slightly higher than the literature value of different parts of country. The TF for different matrices are also been evaluated which show that the mean TF for fruit and vegetable is 1.62E-02 and 3.1E-02 respectively while highest TF amongst dietary items has been found to be in crop that is 4.49E-02.

Keywords: Transfer factors, fall out, dietary items

How to cite this article:
Kumar A, Gautam Y P, Sharma S, Rao K S, Sharma A K, Hegde A G. 137C s concentration in soil and transfer factors for different matrices around narora atomic power station. Radiat Prot Environ 2011;34:63-5

How to cite this URL:
Kumar A, Gautam Y P, Sharma S, Rao K S, Sharma A K, Hegde A G. 137C s concentration in soil and transfer factors for different matrices around narora atomic power station. Radiat Prot Environ [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 Sep 24];34:63-5. Available from: http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/63/93958

  1. Introduction Top

0137 Cs being a long lived radio nuclides, has been regarded as a most important constituent of world - wide radioactive fall out. About 60) of the collective effective dose commitment from external radiation associated with past atmospheric nuclear weapon testing can be attributed to 137 Cs (UNSCEAR, 1988). In the Case of an accidental release of fission products from a nuclear power plant, Cs isotopes are especially significant due to their volatility and a large inventory that builds up in the reactor over time due to it's good fission yield and long half life (Miller et al, 1990). Therefore, measurement of 137 Cs in the environment of nuclear power plant site is very much needful as these data can be used as baseline data against which the long-term impact of nuclear power plant on the environment can be assessed, if any.

NAPS site (28°10'00" N, 78°24'09" E) is located at about 5 km from Narora village west of river Ganga in Debai Tehsil of Bulandshahr District of Uttar Pradesh. NAPS site is on the right bank of Lower Ganga Canal (LGC) and Parallel Lower Ganga Canal (PLGC) at a radial distance of 3.5 km downstream of Narora Barrage. The area of the plant site is fairly flat terrain, gently sloping towards LGC and PLGC. The site lies in Indo-Gangetic alluvium, bordered on the north by the Shivalic foothills. The land around the site is predominantly agricultural. The main crop is wheat followed by other cereals. There are guava and mango groves and vegetable farms around the site.

This paper summaries the 137 Cs activity concentration in soil and transfer factors (TF) of different matrices with respect to soil.

  2. Materials and Methods Top

Soil samples and various food stuffs collected from different locations around NAPS following standard techniques (Hegde et al., 1998) The Soil sample was collected by the scoop up to a depth of 5 cm from one square meter surface area. The samples were dried in hot air oven at 105°C after removal of unwanted materials (For eg. Stones from soil, soil from grass, if any etc.)

Soil Samples powered and mashed in 70 mesh as per standard procedure (Hegde et al, 1998). The system used for the analysis of these samples for the measurement of 137 Cs consists of a 64 cc coaxial type PGT make HPGe detector with a efficiency of 13.5) and a resolution of 2 keV coupled with Aptec 8K PC based MCA card and associated software. The detector efficiency calibration was performed using reference IAEA soil and TAPS soil samples.

Dietary components such as Wheat and Maize as Cereals, Arhar as Pulse, leafy, Non leafy and root vegetables as vegetable, Guava and Mango as fruit were collected along with the soil samples from identified locations in the surroundings of NAPS. These samples were processed and subjected to gamma spectrometry for evaluation of activity due to Cs-137 in them.

TF of 137 Cs for different matrices are evaluated using activity content in the soil and activity content in the particular matrix. It is assumed that the Cs-137 activity in the soil and land produced matrices are in equilibrium. The transportation and accumulation of radinuclides in various matrices of terrestrial component are governed by several physic-chemical parameters of soil. The collected soil samples were also analyzed for such parameters during the study.

  3. Results and Discussion Top

[Table 1] gives the results of 137 Cs activity range and geometric mean in soil samples collected from different locations around Narora Atomic Power Station. [Table 2] presents the analyzed physio-chemical parameters of soil samples. It is clear from the [Table 2] that measured parameters of soils collected from different locations around NAPS do not show much variation in their pH, calcium content and Cation Exchange Capacity. pH of Narora soil varies from 5.5 to 8.7 and Cation Exchange Capacity varies from 28-50 meq/100gm. The soil parameters resemble with the alluvial soil characteristics (Bear, 1977). [Table 3] gives the 137 Cs activity in different other matrices and TF in these matrices with respect to soil. The TF is found to be maximum in grass due to more uptake rate of grass [Figure 1]. The crop is found to have the TF maximum amongst all dietary items (4.49E-02) while the TF for vegetable and fruit is almost same.
Figure 1: Graphical representation of transfer factors w.r.to soil around NAPS

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Table 1: 137Cs Activity range and geometric mean in soil around NAPS

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Table 2: Physiochemical parameters of Soil samples at different locations around narora atomic power station

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Table 3: Transfer Factors of different matrices w.r.t Soil due to 137Cs

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  4. Conclusion Top

The activity concentration of 137 Cs in soil samples of Narora region is of the order of normal global fallout levels. The mean TF of Fruit and vegetable for 137 Cs is 1.62E-02 and 3.1E-02 respectively while the mean TF for crop is found maximum of 4.49E-02 amongst all dietary items.

  5. Acknowledgements Top

The Authors are thankful to Dr. H.S.Kushwaha, Director, Health, Safety and Environment Group, BARC and Dr. P.K. Sarkar, Head, HPD, BARC for their kind encouragement and guidance. Thanks are also due to NAPS authorities, ESL staff and Shri B.Dube Ex.OIC, ESL, NAPS for their kind cooperation during this study.

  6. References Top

  1. Dube B. Gautam Y.P., Saxena V., Kumar A. and Hegde A.G. (2005), Measurement of radioactivity in foodstuffs around Narora Atomic Power Station, Proc. of DAE-BRNS Symp. on Nuclear and Radiochemistry (NUCAR 2005), 659-660.
  2. Bear (1977), Book of chemistry of soil 2 nd edition.
  3. Bhat I.S., Kamath P.R., and Ganguly A.K. (1972), Dispersal and uptake of radioactive elements in the Tarapur Environment.Report BARC-644.
  4. Hegde A.G., Sharma L.N., Chandramouli S., Rao D.D., Matkar V., Verma P.C., and Rajan M.P.(1998), Environmental Radiological Laboratory Procedure, Health Physics Division, BARC.
  5. Miller M.K, Kuiper L.J and Helfer K.I. (1990), 137 Cs fallout depth distribution in forest versus field sites: Implications for external gamma dose rates. J.Environs.Radioactivity, 12, 23-47.
  6. Mehendergi S.T. et al. (1991), Soil to vegetation transfer factors 137 Cs in Tarapur environment, IARP XVIII Conference at Tarapur.


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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  In this article
1. Introduction
2. Materials and...
3. Results and D...
4. Conclusion
5. Acknowledgements
6. References
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