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NEWS AND INFORMATION
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 197-198  

News and Information


Date of Web Publication8-Oct-2014

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How to cite this article:
. News and Information. Radiat Prot Environ 2013;36:197-8

How to cite this URL:
. News and Information. Radiat Prot Environ [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Nov 13];36:197-8. Available from: http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/4/197/142381


  Exposure of Air Crew to UV Radiation Top


The ICRP Recommendations (ICRP-75, 1997), including the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP (ICRP-103) maintained the view that the radiation exposures of air crew to the natural sources of radiation (cosmic radiation) should be considered as occupational exposures and some practical control measures such as flying time and proper flight route selection were suggested. However, exposure of frequent-flyer passengers is not required to be considered for control.

The groups which have potential for significant occupational exposure to cosmic radiation (penetrating the aircraft windows and windshields) are cabin crew, pilots and flight engineers. The measurements made of Australian aircrew (ARPANSA Fact Sheet 27, 2011 indicated an additional dose from commercial air flight of around 1.8 mSv per year for those involved in domestic routes, and around 4 mSv per year for those involved in international flight routes. Typical cruising altitude considered is 7000 to 12,000 metres. This can be compared with the limit on effective dose of 1 mSv/y to the members of the public. May be one should consider the safety of the unborn child in pregnant women crew.

Ultra violet (UV) radiation penetrating through cockpit windows can also result in exposure of skin of air crew. A new study (reported in NewScientist), suggests that the air crew has twice as likely as the general population of developing skin cancer (melanoma) because the intensity of total ultra-violet radiation passing through glass-based windows is twice as intense at the cruising altitudes as compared to ground level. The studies included data from 266,431 aircrew staff through 19 epidemiological studies.

Melonoma begins in the skin's pigment-producing cells, called melanocytes. It is not the common type of cancer (only 2% of all skin cancers), but according to American Cancer Society, it causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths.

The epidemiological studies highlights the importance of: need for skin dosimetry of the air crew, performing UV measurements inside the aircrafts to assess the skin dose, provision of UV protective measures such as sunscreens and protective clothing, and regular skin examination.


  Protection of the Environment Under Different Exposure Situations: ICRP Publication 124, 2014 Top


R. J. Pentreath, J. Lochard, C-M. Larsson, D. A. Cool, P. Strand, J. Simmonds, D. Copplestone, D. Oughton, E. Lazo

This report describes ICRP's framework for protection of the environment and its application within the Commission's system of protection in relation to the protection of animals and plants (biota) in their natural environment.

The use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs); their Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs), which relate radiation effects to doses over and above their normal local background natural radiation levels; and different potential pathways of exposure are also described.

The report explains the different types of exposure situations to which its recommendations apply; the key principles that are relevant to protection of the environment; and hence how reference values based on the use of DCRLs can be used to inform on the appropriate level of effort relevant to different exposure situations. Further recommendations are made with regard to how the Commission's recommendations can be implemented to satisfy different forms of environmental protection objectives, which may require the use of representative organisms specific to a site, and how these may be compared with the reference values.

Additional information is also given with regard to communication with other interested parties and stakeholders. Issues that may arise in relation to compliance are also discussed, and the final chapter discusses the overall implications of the Commission's work in this area to date (Extracted from www.icrp.org/publications ).


  Criticality Safetyin The Handling of Fissile Material, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. Specific Safety Guide (SSG)-27, IAEA, Vienna, 2014 Top


This IAEA Safety Guide addresses criticality safety for fissile material and also covers mixtures of fissile and other fissionable nuclides.

Nuclear facilities handling fissile materials are required to be managed in such a way as to ensure criticality safety during normal operations, mal-operations and during and after design based accidents. This covers nuclear fuel containing fissile material, fabrication facilities; spent fuel reprocessing facilities and management of radioactive waste containing fissile radionuclides, and research facilities handling significant quantities of fissile material. The management/handling includes storage and transportation of fissile materials.

The objective of this 100-page specific safety guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on how to meet the relevant requirements for ensuring criticality safety when dealing with fissile material and for planning the response to criticality accidents. The guidance and recommendations given in the guide are applicable to both regulatory bodies and operating organizations. This Safety Guide does not cover activities at defence related facilities.

There are six sections in the guide covering topics such as: APPROACH TO ENSURING CRITICALITY SAFETY (Safety criteria and safety margins, and criteria for determining exemptions to certain criticality safety measures); MEASURES FOR ENSURING CRITICALITY SAFETY (the safety measures necessary for ensuring sub-criticality); CRITICALITY SAFETY ASSESSMENT (the role of deterministic and probabilistic approaches), CRITICALITY SAFETY FOR SPECIFIC PRACTICES (involved in nuclear fuel cycle), PLANNING FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO A CRITICALITY ACCIDENT (Emergency response plan specific to a criticality accident and criticality detection and alarm systems). The document covers good amount of literature connected with criticality safety.

Compiled by: Dr. Pushparaja

Ex-BARC, Mumbai, India.
E-mail: doc.pushparaja@gmail.com





 

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