|VIEWS, NEWS AND INFORMATION
|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 120-121
Views, News and Information
|Date of Web Publication||10-Nov-2015|
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
. Views, News and Information. Radiat Prot Environ 2015;38:120-1
| IRPA Code of Ethics|| |
International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) Code of Ethics was adopted in May 2004. The principles outlines in the document are meant for Members of IRPA Associate Societies in maintaining a certain professional ethics in dealing with radiation protection. It is expected that if some member has breached the Code of Ethics, the concerned society is expected to investigate and take appropriate actions.
The principles outlined in the document are reproduced here for the benefit of professionals related with radiation protection and safety. Associate Societies are encouraged to adopt or incorporate them as appropriate.
(Extracted from Document IRPA11/GA/4 (Rev.), Ref: IRPA 04/07, IRPA. May 2004).
- Members shall exercise their professional skill and judgement to the best of their ability and carry out their responsibilities with integrity.
- Members shall not allow conflict of interest, management pressures or possible self-interest to compromise their professional judgement and advice. In particular members shall not compromise public welfare and safety in favour of an employer's interest.
- Members shall not undertake any employment or consultation that is contrary to the public welfare or to the law.
- Members shall protect the confidentiality of information obtained during the course of their professional duties, provided that such protection is not in itself unethical or illegal.
- Members shall ensure that relations with interested parties, other professionals and the general public are based on, and reflect, the highest standards of integrity, professionalism and fairness.
- Members should satisfy themselves as to the extent and content of the professional functions required in any particular circumstances, especially those involving the public safety. Members should not undertake professional obligations that they are not qualified, or do not believe themselves to be competent, to carry out.
- Members should take all reasonable steps to ensure that persons carrying out work done under their supervision or direction are competent, and not under undue pressure from workload or other causes.
- Members should strive to improve their own professional knowledge, skill and competence.
- Professional reports, statements, publications or advice produced by members should be based on sound radiation protection principles and science, be accurate to the best of their knowledge and be appropriately attributed.
- Members should, whenever practicable and appropriate, correct misleading, sensational and unwarranted statements by others concerning radiation and radiation protection.
- Members should take advantage of opportunities to increase public understanding of radiation protection and of the aims and objectives of IRPA and their own Society.
| 2015 Nobel Prize in chemistry for work on DNA repair|| |
Three scientists from Sweden, US and Turkey won the most prestigious Noble Prize for their works on DNA repair mechanism. The three scientists are: Swedish citizen, Prof. Tomas Lindahl (UK); US citizen Prof. Paul Modrich (USA) and US and Turkish citizen, Prof. Aziz Sancar (USA). Prize money of 8 million Swedish Krona to be shared equally between them.
Our body consists of cells of different types. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), stored in the nucleus of every cell, contains genetic code written in chemicals. DNA replicates itself during cell division. During this process something can go wrong and there can be damage to the DNA molecule. The DNA damage (called mutation) can also take place due to many other reasons, such as exposure to some chemicals, radiation and many other environmental pollutants, both physical and chemical. The repair mechanism is able to repair this continuous damage of the DNA due to variety of reasons. Prof. Lindahl studied the degeneration or DNA decay over time and how the DNA repair takes place at molecular level.
Enzymes, viz., specialized protein molecules, act as media in DNA repair through chemical reactions taking place at molecular level. The work carried out by these scientists helped in understanding the working of these repair mechanisms; and will help in better understanding of the chemistry behind ageing process and other diseases, including cancer.
One of the three scientists, Prof. Aziz Sancar worked on repair mechanism of the DNA damage caused by the exposure to visible light and UV radiation. He worked on the repair mechanism which made DNA in bacteria exposed to lethal doses of UV radiation to recover under blue light. However, in mammalian cells, a different repair mechanism, called nucleotide excision repair works. However, there is a possibility of a tiny mismatch during the repair of damaged DNA strands. There exists in the cells, enzymes which repair these mismatches in the DNA strands. Prof. Paul Modrich studied the mechanisms correcting such mismatches.
Comments: The scientists have been doing great work for years on this all important and complex subject of repair of damaged DNA. The damage has been taking place spontaneously and also due to exposure to other agents, including natural background radiation. I failed to understand how some one can say that the cancer cases seen in the population is due to exposure to low level ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities? It is time that researchers experimentally prove, beyond doubt, that there is no linear no-threshold (LNT) relationship between low-level exposure to radiation and the cancer.
| Tata Memorial app for cancer diagnosis|| |
Cancer treatment becomes easier if detected early. It is reported that three radiologists from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) in Parel, Mumbai has developed an Application (app) to diagnosis the severity of cancer. The mobile app is titled as INM app. TNM stands for tumour, Node and Metastasis. The app will help doctors to diagnose severity of cancer immediately, within 30 seconds of feeding the required inputs. This may replace the TNM Handbook presently used by all the doctors to correctly identify the stage of cancer in the patient. It is hoped that the app will also help in bringing about standardization of cancer treatment across the country.
The TMH is the national comprehensive cancer centre for the education, research, prevention and treatment in cancer and is recognized as one of the best in the world. Around 8500 major operations are carried out annually in the hospital and radiotherapy and chemotherapy procedures are carried out on over 5000 patients annually. Incidentally, 37 th annual conference of International Association of Cancer Registry is on in Mumbai from 7 to 10 October, 2015.
The INM app is a very useful mobile application which can benefit hundreds of cancer specialists all over, for classification of malignant tumours.
| Radiation technology for cleaning of air pollution|| |
IAEA supported project in Poland employs a radiation technology - electron beam accelerator facility to treat flue gases from coal-driven power plants, thus reducing the emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which can cause damage human health and the environment. Acid rains in and around the site are the result of the acidic pollutants.
The technology is useful in countries which produce electricity by coal/oil combustion and required to meet pollution control regulations. Unlike other conventional technologies, the use of electron beam accelerator technology removes 95% of sulphur dioxide, and 70% of nitrogen oxides present in flue gases. The by-product is high quality fertilizer for use in agriculture. Not much of secondary waste! It is a proven green technology according to the Director General of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland (source: www.iaea.org)
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