Year : 2019 | Volume
: 42 | Issue : 3 | Page : 119--121
Radiological protection and safety: A practitioner's guide
Editor, Radiation Protection and Environment; Ex. Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|How to cite this article:|
Rao D D. Radiological protection and safety: A practitioner's guide.Radiat Prot Environ 2019;42:119-121
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Rao D D. Radiological protection and safety: A practitioner's guide. Radiat Prot Environ [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 28 ];42:119-121
Available from: https://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2019/42/3/119/270444
Author : Pushparaja
Publisher : Notion Press
Price : Rs. 1200
ISBN : 978-1-64650-709-2
Date of publication : October 31, 2019
Book type : Educational and Professional
Number of pages : 406
Number of chapters : 18
This book is authored by Dr. Pushparaja, a radiation safety professional having decades of experience in Health Physics activities of nuclear facilities ranging from research reactors, reprocessing laboratories, waste management facilities, front-end nuclear facilities, and facilities handling radiopharmaceuticals. He has served in several committees of regulatory bodies such as Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and BARC Safety Council and reviewed technical content of many International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. As per the statement of publisher, this book is not a textbook, but a very useful and unique reference book designed to guide people, who are interested in radiological protection, health physicists (HPs), radiological safety officers, medical physicists, operators, regulators, or anyone responsible for radiological protection of the workers, the patients, the public, and the environment.
This reference book has 18 chapters and covers entire radiological safety aspects of nuclear fuel cycle, latest guidelines, and technical information from international institutions, such as IAEA, ICRP, and UNSCEAR. Following are the excerpts and unique features of different chapters in groups.
These four chapters consist of Introduction, Radioactivity and Radiation, Radiation Units and Quantities, and Effects of Radiation Exposure on Health. These four chapters together give details of historical perspective of discovery of X-rays, evolution of ICRP recommendations, radiation risk levels, UNSCEAR approach, and IAEA approach in providing standard documentation. Fundamentals of radioactivity such as units of radioactivity; half-life concept; specific activity concept; attenuation of radiation; electromagnetic spectrum; range of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays; and emission properties of several particles are elaborated. Radiation units such as Roentgen and external exposure rate calculations and dosimetric quantities such as absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, radiation weighting factors, tissue weighting factors, committed effective dose, and personal dose equivalent are discussed in detail. Effects of radiation at cellular levels are explained with example dose levels given for acute radiation syndrome and lethal dose. Applicability of linear nonthreshold model for low doses and low-dose rates, dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor, stochastic effects, and radiation detriment have been discussed in great detail. Latest revision of dose limit to the lens of the eye and the concepts behind the revision are included in the fourth chapter.
These three chapters consist of Detection of Radiation, Radiation Exposure from natural Sources, and System of Radiological Protection of Humans. Fundamentals of radiation detection with gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and solid-state nuclear track detectors have been given to provide basic knowledge of radiation detection for beginners. Exposure to natural radiation, cosmic radiation, and terrestrial and UNSCEAR worldwide background radiation levels are given in the sixth chapter. Exposure to radon (indoor/outdoor/mines), working levels, equilibrium factors, effective dose from radon exposure, standards for radon exposure, latest updates on radon exposure limits, and radon measurements are discussed in detail, useful for both practitioners and members of public. Evolution of ICRP limits of dose for external exposure starting from 1934 has been discussed in the seventh chapter with details of how they have been gradually revised based on the then-available data. It started with ICRP-26 (1977) and ended with ICRP-103 (2007) covering different types of exposure including of occupational workers, aviation crew, pregnant and breastfeeding workers, embryo and fetus tissue, patients, caregivers, members of the public, representative person, principles of radiological protection, dose constraints, dose limits, and reference levels. It illustrates dosimetric information in the tabular form for comparison of various recommendations.
The three chapters are namely Regulatory Aspects of Exposures to Radiation, Control of Occupational Radiation Exposures, and Occupational Exposure Scenarios. These chapters are of high importance, particularly to HPs, across the nuclear field at various facilities including healthcare units. Chapter 8 deals with the technical details of regulatory requirements provided by the IAEA and UNSCEAR documents. The registration, licensing, and exclusion activities from regulations, etc., are dealt in this chapter. The role of the AERB and its set up as regulatory body in India are given in this chapter. Chapter 9 gives controlling aspects of radiation exposures in nuclear fuel cycle and use of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, agriculture, and industries. Design features such defense-in-depth approach, design considerations in the setup of a radiological laboratory, hazard classifications of radionuclides, and zoning concepts are discussed in detail. Radioactivity handling facilities/equipment such as fume hood, glove box, shielded box, hot cell, and their design features along with a few photographs are also covered. Shielding aspects of alpha, beta, gamma radiations and calculations of shield thicknesses (HVT, TVT, etc.) are discussed by giving numeric examples. Internal exposure and control, computation of dosimetric quantities such as intakes of radionuclides, committed effective dose, and reference levels such as recording levels, and investigation levels are included in this chapter. Human respiratory tract models, systemic biokinetic models, and human alimentary tract models are described. Numeric examples are given for computation of derived air concentration and annual limit on intake. The scenarios leading to occupational exposure in individual facilities of nuclear fuel cycle are discussed in great detail in Chapter 10. The nuclear fuel cycle facilities discussed included are uranium ore mining, milling, and processing, enrichment, fuel fabrication, nuclear reactors, spent-fuel storage, spent-fuel reprocessing, and radioactive waste management. Radiation exposures in medical and industrial application of radiation are also elaborated.
The three chapters include Radiological Protection in Planned Exposure Situations, Radiological Protection in Emergency Exposure Situations, and Radiological Protection in Existing Exposure Situations. These three chapters have been designed as per the latest IAEA guidelines according to IAEA GSR Part 3. In Chapter 11, planned exposure situations are considered and accordingly radiation protection of workers and public is discussed. Work area classifications (controlled, supervised), workplace monitoring – area monitoring, air monitoring, contamination monitoring, individual monitoring, and the equipment/techniques (TLDs, OSLDs, etc.) required for performing these tasks have been covered. Internal dosimetry, personnel decontamination (internal and external), medical surveillance of occupational workers, and environmental monitoring requirements are discussed. Chapter 12 gives greater details on radiation protection in emergency exposure situations beginning with five emergency preparedness categories. Types of emergencies such as emergency alert, plant emergency, site emergency, off-site emergency, and dirty bomb scenarios are briefed. Exposure to the public in emergencies, exposure assessment, protective actions, medical response, event reporting, communications, international nuclear and radiological events scale, and examples of past accidents in the scale are given. Chapter 13 deals with existing exposure situations and several scenarios of radiation exposure in these situations are provided. Exposure to radon in dwellings and exposure to contaminated areas postemergency are major examples for the existing exposure situations. Reference levels, remedial actions, and protection strategies are also given in this chapter.
Chapters 14 and 15
The two chapters include Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Waste Management. The requirements and standards existing for safe transport of radioactive material to protect public, property, and the environment from radiation exposure are given in Chapter 14. Shielding, classification, packaging, test procedures, approvals from competent authorities, and various other requirements are provided. Exemption categories, dose criteria, specific activity criteria, package types, fissile material transport regulations, and unique number assignments are all described. Radioactive/nuclear waste materials produced during various stages of nuclear fuel cycle and industrial, medical, and research facilities are described in Chapter 15. Philosophy of nuclear waste management, classification of the waste (exempt, short-lived, very low level, low level, intermediate, high level, NORM waste), management of the waste, and treatment techniques have been described in great detail. Typical facilities used for the disposal of the waste such as near-surface disposal, geological disposal, and incineration have been described.
Chapters 16 and 17
These two chapters are Security of Radiation Sources and Radiological Safety of the Environment. For a few years, threat of nuclear material theft and their use for sabotage activities to cause harm to public and damage to property have been on the rise. The safety and security of radioactive materials and sources have been elaborated in Chapter 16 based on national and international guidelines. In Chapter 17, the radiation exposure aspects of flora and fauna have been dealt. Author gives the latest information on the radiological safety of environment based on the ICRP/IAEA publications.
This chapter is on some of the organizations relevant to radiological protection and safety. Author gives brief introduction to the organizations responsible for the radiological protection and safety. The organizations include ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, ICRU, NCRP, BEIR, HPS, and EC.
In my view, author has put in all his professional experience spanning over four decades in preparing this reference book, particularly in Chapters 6–10 and Chapters 14–16. I sincerely hope that professionals, students, teachers, and researchers, or whosoever refer this book, will get immensely benefited from the contents of this reference book.
The book can be found at web address: http://notionpress.com/read/radiological-protection-and-safety.