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   2013| October-December  | Volume 36 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 8, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antioxidant, antibacterial, and ultraviolet-protective properties of carotenoids isolated from Micrococcus spp.
Devihalli Chikkaiah Mohana, Sreerangegowda Thippeswamy, Rayasandra Umesh Abhishek
October-December 2013, 36(4):168-174
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142394  
Carotenoids are the most common naturally occurring bioactive terpenoid pigments, which are commonly produced by a wide variety of plants and microbes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and radio-protective properties of carotenoid pigments isolated from ultraviolet (UV)-C resistant Micrococcus spp. The UV-C resistant Micrococcus roseus and Micrococcus luteus were isolated from the soil samples of Savandurga hills region, Karnataka (India), and their pigments were identified as carotenoids based on spectral analysis. The UV-protective efficacies were determined by cling-film assay. Further, the antioxidant activities of pigments were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and antibacterial activities by disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. The optimum growth and pigment production by M. roseus and M. luteus were observed at temperature ranged between 35°C and 37°C, pH 7.0-8.0, NaCl 5.0-7.0%, and sucrose as major carbon and KNO 3 as major nitrogen sources. In the present investigation, the isolated carotenoid pigments of M. roseus and M. luteus showed significant UV protective activity along with antioxidant (IC 50 3.5-4.5 mg/mL) and antibacterial (minimal inhibitory concentration 0.25-2.0 mg/mL) properties.
  7,216 865 13
Environmental monitoring using LiMgPO4:Tb, B based optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter
SN Menon, Sonal Kadam, Bhushan Dhabekar, AK Singh, MP Chougaonkar, D. A. R. Babu, AK Patra
October-December 2013, 36(4):146-149
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142383  
A new optically stimulated luminescence based environmental dosimeter (EnOSLD) was developed using LiMgPO 4 :Tb, B phosphor (LMP). The dosimeters were deployed along with the conventional thermoluminescent based environmental thermoluminescent detectors (EnTLD) for a period of six quarters in the environs of a nuclear power plant in India. The dose estimated by the EnOSLDs was compared with that of the dose estimated by EnTLDs. The mean ratio of the doses measured by thermoluminescent detector to that measured by optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters was found to be 1.04 ± 0.11. The results show that LMP based OSLDs can be used as environmental dosimeter.
  1,571 1,080 3
Influence of physico-chemical parameters on the distribution of uranium in the ground water of Bangalore, India
Ningaiah Nagaiah, Gladys Mathews, Karthik Kumar Mysore Balakrishna, Ambika Madalakote Rajanna, Karunakara Naregundi
October-December 2013, 36(4):175-180
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142389  
Laser-Induced Fluorimetry has been used to measure the concentration of uranium in the ground water samples collected from the selected study locations of Bangalore city, India. The concentration of uranium in the collected water samples is found to be in the range 0.24 μg/l to 770.1 μg/l, with a geometric mean (GM) value of 18.9 μg/l. About 35% of the water samples show the concentration of uranium above the safe limit of 30 μg/l, set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The annual effective dose associated with the ingestion of uranium by the adult population of the region has been estimated using the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Few physicochemical parameters of water such as pH, Total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations, major anions, and trace elements were also measured. The correlation coefficient among the measured parameters was determined to find the dependence, if any, on the concentration of uranium in the water samples.
  1,938 246 7
GUEST EDITORIAL
Guest Editorial
MS Kulkarni
October-December 2013, 36(4):145-145
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142382  
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Establishment of a locally-assembled image viewer system using ultra-books, tablet PC's and smartphones for research, education, training and medical diagnosis
Sankaran Ananthanarayanan
October-December 2013, 36(4):187-192
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142385  
In the field of diagnostic radiological imaging, new challenges, particularly the gigabyte storage, display and wireless transfer/transmission of images among medical professionals have led to the use of ultra-books, iPad-like tablets and smartphones, along with the use of innovative medical imaging software, in view of their several advantages. The article reviews the special features of these devices and their ubiquitous applications, along with their practical selection for medical imaging. A prototype home-assembled low-cost image-viewer system using the latest Windows 8.1 based Acer ultra-book computer/monitor system connected to Apple iPad Mini/iPod Touch/iPod classic devices as well as to an high-definition TV viewing unit is described. This ultra-book is selected for its touch-screen graphics display, optical drive facility (for reading the CD-ROM containing images) and for easy portability. Both Wi-Fi broadband and cellular network are provided for transmitting/receiving images. A novel, elegant and versatile FDA-approved medical imaging (MIM) software, suitable for analysis and display of images from all modalities, with cloud facility, was used for long-term storage, display and transmission of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine patient images. The system has been tested with a variety of educational patient, experimental phantom and resolution images as well as the images supplied by Apple/MIM. Results show that the ultra-book with Windows 8.1 capability, in association with MIM software, can serve as a mini-workstation for analysis/processing and for providing wireless and portable access to all medical (including mammography) images. The optional pocket type iPod Touch and iPad Mini (with light weight and moderate size display) devices enable easy accessibility of images at any site. The system with their present resolution will certainly fulfill their role in education, training and research and is well-suited for diagnosis.
  1,580 147 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Preliminary study on the measurement of background radiation dose at Antarctica during 32 nd expedition
AK Bakshi, Rupali Pal, Ajay Dhar, MP Chougaonkar
October-December 2013, 36(4):164-167
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142393  
A significant proportion (10%) of the natural background radiation is of cosmic origin. Cosmic ray consists of gamma, protons, electrons, pions, muons, neutrons and low Z nuclei. Due to the geomagnetic effect, cosmic radiation levels at poles are higher. As a consequence, personnel working in Antarctica (or Arctic) are subjected to high level of cosmic radiation. The present study gives the details of the estimation of background radiation (neutrons, gamma and electrons) dose rate around the Indian station at Antartica named "Bharati" measured during 32 nd Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica (32 nd INSEA). The measurement was carried out by passive dosimeters such as TLDs and CR-39 and active dosimeter such as RadEye G portable gamma survey meter. Gamma and electron components were measured using TLDs and survey meter, whereas CR-39 SSNTDs and neutron sensitive TLDs were used for neutron measurements. These detectors were deployed at few selected locations around Bharati station for about 2΍ months during summer expedition. The neutron detectors used in the study were pre-calibrated with 241 Am-Be fast/thermal neutron source. The fast neutron dose rate measured based on CR-39 detector was found to about 140-420 nSv/h. The gamma dose rate evaluated by TLDs/survey meter are in the range of 290-400 nSv/h.
  1,510 189 6
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sequential separation of uranium, americium and plutonium from urine by extraction chromatography
N Praveena, V Santhanakrishnan, MR Sankaran, RG Purohit, RM Tripathi
October-December 2013, 36(4):193-195
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142384  
A rapid method for sequential separation of uranium, americium and plutonium from urine samples by extraction chromatography was developed. In this method, U-TEVA and TRU-resin columns were used for the separation of the radionuclides. By this method U, Am and Pu could be separated from urine samples with high recoveries and no interference from the sample matrix was observed. Radiochemical recoveries observed in the study were in the range 63.8-100%. Column separation of the radionuclides could be completed within 3 h compared to the present practice of separation of these radionuclides by ion exchange method which requires minimum 3 days to complete the separation.
  1,471 209 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study on the dosimetric characteristics of indigenously developed computer-controlled multisource gamma irradiation system
AK Bakshi, S Sahoo, K Srivastava, T Palani Selvam, VJ Joshi, MP Chougaonkar, D. A. R. Babu
October-December 2013, 36(4):150-159
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142388  
A computer-controlled multisource gamma ( 60 Co, 137 Co, and 241 Am) irradiation system has been developed indigenously for the purpose of strengthening the quality assurance program of individual monitoring service in India. The system can be used for the irradiation of personnel dosimeters both in panoramic and collimated modes in a well-reproduced geometry. Measurements of output (air-kerma rate) of the sources in both collimated and panoramic modes and transit dose were carried out. The study also includes radiation protection survey of the installation. Depending upon the distance from the source, the Monte Carlo-calculated air-kerma rates of the 60 Co and 137 Cs sources compare within 5-10% against measurements. In the collimated mode, the calculated beam uniformity is within 3% in the area of 20 cm × 20 cm centered on the collimator axis.
  1,421 183 -
Assessment of neutron dose in Indus accelerator complex using CR-39 SSNTD
Dimple Verma, G Haridas, Rupali Pal, Vipin Dev, Tapas Bandopadhyay, MP Chougaonkar, RM Tripathi, D. A. R. Babu
October-December 2013, 36(4):160-163
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142392  
Indus accelerator complex (IAC) consists of two synchrotron radiation sources namely Indus-1 and Indus-2. The radiation environment here is mainly due to bremsstrahlung and photo-neutrons. Major problems faced in neutron detection in IAC are the severely pulsed nature and gamma (bremsstrahlung) interference. Thus, to assess the neutron dose rates in the accessible and inaccessible areas of IAC, passive integrating type neutron detectors CR-39 and bubble detectors are used. The dose rates observed at microtron body; booster injection and extraction septum are significant (few mSv/h) when compared to other locations in IAC. From bubble detector data, it can be seen that the dose rate during injection is high (maximum 112 μSv/h) compared with storage mode (maximum 2.6 μSv/h) indicating high beam loss during injection. During the injection, the personnel are not allowed in these areas due to high radiation doses on account of the beam loss. The neutron dose rates observed for accessible areas are three orders of magnitude less than the inaccessible areas in the complex.
  1,136 165 -
Nondosimetric quality assurance of radiotherapy treatment planning system using multi-leaf collimator beam geometry phantom
Rajesh Kumar, Rahul Kumar Chaudhary, Sudesh Deshpande, Parimal Patwe, SD Sharma, D. A. R. Babu
October-December 2013, 36(4):181-186
DOI:10.4103/0972-0464.142386  
Radiotherapy treatment planning system (RTPS) plays an important role in overall treatment delivery process. Nondosimetric quality assurance (QA) of the RTPS was carried out to assess the accuracy of nondosimetric parameters of the RTPS for regular/irregular fields obtained with jaws/multi-leaf collimator (MLC) using a dedicated MLC beam geometry phantom. Simulated radiation beams of field sizes 1 Χ 2 cm, 10 Χ 10 cm and 15 Χ 15 cm were created in RTPS using jaws for combinations of (i) 0° couch and gantry angles, and (ii) 323° gantry and 204° couch angles on computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for these setups were also generated. MLC co-ordinates were set in the RTPS corresponding to preset irregular field (formed by over travel of A or B bank of leaves) and resulting leaves positions were manually adjusted to fit the structures provided in the phantom. The dimensions of known geometries were measured and compared against the actual dimensions. The variation in measured and expected values of field sizes created by jaws was within 1.8 mm. In the case of DRR for 0° couch and gantry angles, the variation ranged from − 2.7 mm to 1.7 mm and for 204° couch and 323° gantry angles it was in the range of − 1.5-1.3 mm. The maximum variation between set leaf positions and manually adjusted positions for irregular field of MLC were found in the range of 2-4 mm. Nondosimetric QA of an RTPS was carried out, and results of the test provide confidence for its safe use for clinical practice.
  1,120 124 -
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